This project will examine current and future energy policy and multi-level policymaking and its impact on ‘energy systems’. As the meanings of policy, policymaking, the ‘policy process’ and ‘system’ are not clear, an initial aim will be to turn this complex field of study into something simple enough to understand and engage with.

Focusing on ‘multi-level policymaking’ – which can encompass concepts such as multi-level governance and intergovernmental relations – we reflect the fact that the responsibility for policies relevant to energy are often Europeanised, devolved, and shared between several levels of government.

Brexit will also have a major effect on energy and non-energy policies, and prompt the UK and devolved governments to initiate new relationships, but we need more clarity on the dynamics of current arrangements before we can talk sensibly about the future.

The project will pursue three main work packages:

1. What is the ‘energy policymaking system’ and how does it affect the energy system?

2. Who is responsible for action to reduce energy demand?

3: Does Brexit affect UK and devolved policy on energy supply?