This project will draw upon engineering knowledge to articulate a set of necessary but sufficient constraints to allow the value and impact of energy storage facilities, demand side management and energy network capacity to be understood and used in the Spatial & Temporal Analysis of Energy Vectors project. This will be achieved through an iterative modelling approach involving the disaggregation of time and space, with constraints that couple spatial regions and time, reflect regional limits to development, and reflect the costs of upgrades. In addition to building on networks research through Supergen HubNet, modelling expertise in WholeSEM and representations of local energy systems from the Local energy infrastructure operation and governance project, this project will benefit from insights arising from contacts with various international collaborators.