This project will investigate the flexibility implications of low carbon heat, building on detailed dynamic models of heating systems. It will quantify flexibility from individual heating assets and co-ordination of multiple assets, in terms of energy flows, rates of change, durations and costs. Centralised co-ordination methods will be compared with decentralised solutions, especially independent local control and Peer-to-Peer energy trading based co-ordination. This will include analysis of the potential role of low-temperature district heating systems (e.g. abstraction from rivers or the use of disused mines).