The research has three components to address key knowledge gaps (e.g. Armstrong et al, 2016) and complement other UKRI programmes (e.g. the NERC/ESRC programme on unconventional hydrocarbons):

(i) To develop understanding of the response of ecosystem properties to solar parks and their ecosystem service implications, and develop a typology of solar park response, dependent on management and location;

(ii) To explore the application of ‘net gain’ (which only applies in terrestrial planning) to offshore wind farms, in novel research linked to the aspirations of the Defra Marine Pioneer. It will explore how the development of floating wind affects opportunities for co-location with other marine activities.

(iii) To work with themes 5 & 6 to quantify cumulative environmental impacts of renewable energy in Scotland and potential losses due to electrification of transport and heat decarbonisation. The project will provide inputs for projects 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4.